21 new links and books

Links and books

Steven Alter: Work System Basics

The following summary is based on Work System Theory: Overview of Core Concepts, Extensions, and Challenges for the Future, which was published in 2013 in the Journal of the Association for Information Systems. The summary covers the following topics: Work system definition and special cases, Work system framework, Work system life cycle model, Work system method, and Work system metamodel (an more detailed version of the work system framework).
- Systems Thinking -

A Reference architecture for the Open Banking Standard

Vamsi Chemitiganti: This is the fourth in a series of four posts on the Open Banking Standard (OBS) in the UK. The previous posts introduced the Open Bank Standard (OBS) examined the business and strategic drivers for banks while proposing an architectural style or approach for incumbents to drive change in their platforms to achieve OBS Compliance. The final post will discuss a reference architecture for the OBS.
- Reference Models -

Klaus Schwab (2017)
The Fourth Industrial Revolution

The founder and executive chairman of the World Economic Forum on how the impending technological revolution will change our lives. We are on the brink of the Fourth Industrial Revolution. And this one will be unlike any other in human history. Characterized by new technologies fusing the physical, digital and biological worlds, the Fourth Industrial Revolution will impact all disciplines, economies and industries - and it will do so at an unprecedented rate. World Economic Forum data predicts that by 2025 we will see: commercial use of nanomaterials 200 times stronger than steel and a million times thinner than human hair; the first transplant of a 3D-printed liver; 10% of all cars on US roads being driverless; and much more besides. In The Fourth Industrial Revolution, Schwab outlines the key technologies driving this revolution, discusses the major impacts on governments, businesses, civil society and individuals, and offers bold ideas for what can be done to shape a better future for all.
- Industry 4.0 -

James Lapalme
Organizations (and organizing) are a technology that humans know very little about

The human-made technology that is used by organizations has played a crucial role in enabling humans to accomplish impressive endeavors. Despite the critical importance that organizations (or organizing) have played (and still play) in shaping the modern world, they are a technology that humans know very little about, and are still struggling to design and use adequately. The crux of the problem is that the study of organizations (including their design) does not fit neatly into the boxes that are modern academic disciplines. Another important series of issues concerns conducting multidisciplinary research across the silos of academic discipline. Crossing these silos is especially difficult when trying to cross-pollinate ideas as well as publish because of terminological, political, and social challenges. As such, the ODandEE journal is a necessary and important step in the right direction for addressing these issues by promoting research that is both multidisciplinary as well as oriented towards the proactive stance of design and engineering.
- Enterprise Architecture -

Bas van Gils (2017)
SciFi architecture

(Enterprise) Architecture has emerged as a key discipline in dealing with continuous change/transformation in which models play a key role. In most current modelling languages (e.g. ArchiMate) there is a clear distinction between business concepts and IT concepts. The question that is addressed in this paper is: is that still justified? It is argued that a more symbiotic relationship between human actors and computer actors, performing essential (business) behaviour side by side is the way to long term success. We also briefly touch upon the impact of such change in (modelling) approach on the way we deal with these transformations from a methodological point of view.
- Enterprise Architecture -

Rodrigo Magalhães and Henderik A. Proper (2017)
Model-enabled design and engineering of organisations and their enterprises

This editorial is concerned with the need for an integrated approach to the design and engineering of organisations and their enterprises. Organisational Design originates from the organisational sciences, while the notion of Enterprise Engineering results from the engineering sciences (most notably information systems engineering, business (process) engineering, business process optimisation, and enterprise architecture). The Organisational Design and Enterprise Engineering journal (ODEE) is built on the premise that there should not be an either-or relation between Organisational Design and Enterprise Engineering, but rather an integrated approach that brings out the best of the two. A driver for the creation of the journal was the observation that the either-or mindset was (and still is) a major obstacle to the development of organisational thinking, and that this artificial divide must be abolished. In achieving more integration between Organisational Design and Enterprise Engineering, we suggest to take a model-enabled approach, where models should act as boundary objects between the social processes involved in organisational design processes, and the more analytical and rational side of enterprise engineering.
- Enterprise Architecture -

The fourth industrial revolution: a primer on Artificial Intelligence (AI)

From Amazon and Facebook to Google and Microsoft, leaders of the worlds most influential technology firms are highlighting their enthusiasm for Artificial Intelligence (AI). But what is AI? Why is it important? And why now? While there is growing interest in AI, the field is understood mainly by specialists. Our goal for this primer is to make this important field accessible to a broader audience.
- Intelligent computers - Industry 4.0 -

Marco Nardello, James Lapalme, Gustav Toppenberg, John Gøtze (2015)
How Does Enterprise Architecture Support Innovation?

Innovation is becoming increasingly important for Enterprise Architecture (EA) teams. Consequently, it is crucial that tools be developed to assist Enterprise Architecture teams when evaluating how (and how well) they are supporting innovation within the context of their enterprise. To date very little research has been completed that focuses on both EA and innovation. This paper presents an assessment tool to help EA teams evaluate and improve how they support innovation. The tool has been tested in a case study with a hi-tech firm and initial results are presented. In 2015 International Conference on Enterprise Systems (ES).
- Enterprise Architecture -

Storyframing: What we want users to do

Designing a digital service or product around distinct user behaviour, helping to ensure user adoption and repeat use are front of mind from the outset of a project.
- Service Design - Design Thinking -

Microservices: a definition of this new architectural term

Martin Fowler: The term "Microservice Architecture" has sprung up over the last few years to describe a particular way of designing software applications as suites of independently deployable services. While there is no precise definition of this architectural style, there are certain common characteristics around organization around business capability, automated deployment, intelligence in the endpoints, and decentralized control of languages and data.
- Microservices -

Measuring the Performance of Enterprise Architecture

Enterprise architecture teams often struggle with measuring and communicating the value of their function. We have implemented a set of simple and straight-forward performance indicators to address this problem.
- Enterprise Architecture -

Digital Twin Simulation Leveraging Lifecycle Services

A digital twin is a virtual equivalent of an actual physical product or service. Businesses from GE to Siemens are presently using digital twins to monitor the conditions of wind turbines and manufacturing equipment in real time, analyzing changes in key parameters and taking measures to perform conditional or predictive maintenance based on the slightest deviations.
- Industry 4.0 -

What is a Concept Map?

Concept maps are graphical tools for organizing and representing knowledge. They include concepts, usually enclosed in circles or boxes of some type, and relationships between concepts indicated by a connecting line linking two concepts. Words on the line, referred to as linking words or linking phrases, specify the relationship between the two concepts. We define concept as a perceived regularity or pattern in events or objects, or records of events or objects, designated by a label .
- Design -

Exploring Designs for a Process Prioritisation Method

Jens Ohlsson (doctoral dissertation): Process prioritisation is an ill-structured and complex problem that remains a mystery phase in business process management (BPM) research. More explorative approaches are called upon to tackle process management problems, to facilitate process innovation and to design new processes in dynamic environments. This dissertation aims (i) to design and evaluate a Prioritisation and Categorisation Method (PCM) for addressing process prioritisation problems; and (ii) to explore process innovation by disruptive technologies.
- Systems Thinking - Business Process Management -

Strategy Spectrum for Enterprise Engineering and Manufacturing

John Zachman blog post on Industry 4.0 challenges for enterprise architects.
- Industry 4.0 - Enterprise Architecture -

Class Notes: Considering Context in Business Process Management: The BPM Context Framework

Jan vom Brocke, Sarah Zelt, and Theresa Schmiedel: In this note, we want to make the point that BPM needs to consider the context of a BPM initiative much more than is currently being done. The management of processes in organizations has moved from managing production processes to managing administrative processes, and today there is a need (and a chance) to move beyond incremental improvement of processes towards their complete innovation, particularly through digital technology. The methods used for process management, however, have not followed these developments, and they are essentially the same ones that were developed twenty years ago to streamline operational processes. We find that this causes two important problems: (1) the failure of BPM projects, as methods are used that do not fit the relevant context, and (2) the organizational renunciation of BPM in order to avoid such failure. However, we also find that BPM could successfully meet a variety of contemporary challenges. But in order to leverage this potential, BPM needs to be more sensitive towards the relevant context of its application. For this purpose, we recently developed a contextual framework to help identify and discuss relevant contextual factors and to develop skills and methods that are context-sensitive. It is referred to as the BPM Context Framework. We will introduce the BPM Context Framework in this note and show how it can be applied in BPM practice. The context factors of the BPM Context Framework can be enhanced through additional factors, and we invite everybody to engage in this discussion to help BPM become more context-sensitive and to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of BPM practices.
- Business Process Management -

Disciplined Agile 2.X

Disciplined Agile (DA) is a process decision framework for lean enterprises. The main characteristics of this framework are that it: is a people-first, learning-oriented hybrid agile/lean approach; has a risk-value delivery lifecycle; is goal-driven; is enterprise aware; is tactically scalable at the team level; and strategically scalable across all of the enterprise.
- Enterprise Architecture - Software Development -

Do We Need Product Managers?

John Cutler: After reading the 745th blog post trying to define product management and product ownership ….
- Product Management -

Cybersecurity Framework by NIST

Recognizing that the national and economic security of the United States depends on the reliable functioning of critical infrastructure, the President under the Executive Order "Improving Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity (link is external)" has directed NIST to work with stakeholders to develop a voluntary framework for reducing cyber risks to critical infrastructure. The Framework will consist of standards, guidelines, and best practices to promote the protection of critical infrastructure. The prioritized, flexible, repeatable, and cost-effective approach of the framework will help owners and operators of critical infrastructure to manage cybersecurity-related risk while protecting business confidentiality, individual privacy and civil liberties.
- Cybersecurity -

Baldrige Cybersecurity Excellence Builder: Key questions for improving your organization’s cybersecurity performance

The Baldrige Cybersecurity Excellence Builder is a voluntary self-assessment tool that enables organizations to better understand the effectiveness of their cybersecurity risk management efforts. It helps leaders of organizations identify opportunities for improvement based on their cybersecurity needs and objectives, as well as their larger organizational needs, objectives, and outcomes. Developed by NIST.
- Cybersecurity -

From EA to Enterprise Architecture 3.0

Ken Griesi and Beryl Bellman: The need for enterprises to efficiently and effectively deal with complexity and change has, perhaps, never been more prevalent than now.? Driving relevant and timely solutions for an enterprise demands a thorough understanding of the problem space and skillful bounding of the solution space prior to engineering a solution. Yet even as EAs faces these challenges, there are lessons to be learned from natural systems and an examination of CAS Theory. EA 3.0 stands upon the strong and steady shoulders of well-established principles that have survived the test of time. As John Zachman (2003) states, Seven thousand years of human history would establish that the key to complexity and change is architecture.
- Enterprise Architecture -